"Esus is homologous with the Norse Odin in receiving human sacrifices by hanging....."He also draws another link with Woden:
"The figure of Esus can perhaps be brought together with the theonym Lugus, which lurks in toponyms[Lugu-dunum `Lugus town`].My readers will be aware that I have linked Lugh to Woden in previous articles. So once again there is a further link, albeit an indirect one between Esus and Woden. Interestingly he also states:
"Esus may mean simply `Lord` and be cognate with Latin erus `master`....."`Lord` is also an interpretation for the name of the Vana God Frey. Also `Lord` is a term that was used of Christ in the New Testament. In addition to this it is also fairly obvious that the sound and appearance of the two names Esus and Jesus is suggestive of a strong link. Indeed it was quite possibly the God Esus who had His name stolen and given to the jewish `messiah` in order to come up with a personal name for this New Testament `saviour`. The process of deciding what to call this supposedly jewish saviour god was decided at the Council of Nicaea in 325CE under the watchful eye of Constantine[the `Great`] who needed a religion to unify his empire. Puhvel also states:
Lug was the father of Cuchulainn in Irish saga, even as Odin was the sire of prominent Norse heroes; likwise Esugenus `Begotten of Esus` was a Gaulish name of nobility."Like earlier scholars Puhvel links together Esus with Teutates and Taranis as a triad but J.A. McCulloch in his The Celtic and Scandinavian Religions tends to deny this. It should be noted that Puhvel`s scholarship is more recent than McCulloch`s.
"Esus-Lugus, Taranis, and Teutates as a triad receiving human sacrifice may thus roughly match the Scandinavian set of Odin, Thor, and Freyr in pagan Sweden....." [Puhvel]Aryan mythology is replete with examples of triads or TRINITIES of Gods but I will reserve further discussion about this to a future article. Esus is portrayed as using an axe to cut down a tree. My readers will be aware that Thunor`s original thunder weapon was an axe and a stone one at that. As symbolic of lightning the axe fells the oak tree in a thunder storm. Could Esus be a Thunder God in a similar way to Taranis or Succellos? However it is not very well known but Woden is also sometimes pictured as carrying an axe. In a 12th century CE church tapestry from Skog, Haelsingland, Sweden Thor is depicted as holding a hammer,Frey an ear of corn and Odin an axe. Likewise the Frisian God Fosite[referred to by Adam of Bremen in the 11th century CE] is known to have an axe as his primary magical weapon. Fosite may or may not be identical with the Norse Forseti. The axe is therefore a symbol of the importance and the solar nature of these sky deities; Thunor, Woden, Fosite and Esus. It was important to the Romans that the Christ be portrayed as being a solar deity. The disparate peoples of Roman Europe could relate to such a god. The accompanying photograph shows Esus on the Pillar of the Boatmen from 1st century CE Paris and now located in the Musée National du Moyen Age.